So much in the news of late about the comings and goings of Cardinals, that it is fortunate I seem to have spent more and more time this Lent reflecting on Cardinal Henry Manning and reading his book on the Glories of the Sacred Heart. It is good to remind ourselves of the contribution which some truly great Cardinals - like Manning - have made to the life of the Church at a time when the standing of some is, to say the least, questionable.
The absolutely centrality of the relationship between the Sacred Heart and the social teaching of the Church may grasped in Manning's observations on the life of St. Vincent de Paul ( made in 1861).
Look at the condition of the classes of England; the separation of the rich from the poor ; at the unequal distribution of wealth ; at the unwieldy miseries and irremediable distresses of our millions. Private charity - is exhausted ; public relief breaks down ; and pauperism and hunger gain head against all we do. We were told the other day, that every week one person at least dies of actual starvation in London. Whether that be so or not, I cannot tell ; it is a statement put forward by those who ought to know. With all our wealth and skill and pride of government, the political powers of the world are incapable of redressing evils such as these, which are the degradations of barbarism, not the maladies of Christian society. There is only one power that can redress these social evils, that is, the supernatural power of charity. There is nothing for us but the revolution of charity — the action of God: — the return of God and His kingdom into this land, that can preserve us from the scourge which threatens us now. And who can accomplish this revolution of charity ? …What power can do so ? Only that one so long despised. Charity is no abstraction. It has its presence and its form on earth. It was first organised in the Catholic Church on the day of Pentecost, and has wrought throughout the world from that day to this. It has borne its fruits- in a thousand Saints like Vincent of Paul, and contains in itself the ever-fresh and inexhaustible vigour of its- youth in every land and age. ..But just as France was organised by the charity and zeal of Vincent and his companions, who spread all over France a network, as it were, of charities, so the one only power which can ever reunite the classes of England in bonds of mutual submission and benevolence, is the universal action of the same supernatural charity which springs from the Sacred Heart of Jesus, and is applied by the equal operation and the divine unity of the Church of God. (Ecclesiastical Sermons, Vol. I., p. 89, my emphasis)
|Manning at the ceremony in Kensington prior to the departure to France.|
It is very apparent when we read his thoughts on the social questions of his day that Manning believed that the Sacred Heart was the very source of the love which he saw as the only way in which a true ‘revolution’ that could redress ‘social evil’ could come about. The social teaching of the Catholic Church as it was to develop from Rerum Novarum onwards springs – from his perspective - from the Sacred Heart of Jesus. His commitment to social improvement and social justice and his passionate love of the Sacred Heart were one and the same burning flame that illuminated and informed his life and work as a whole. Indeed, it is only when human beings harness the love of God which radiates from the heart of the Saviour can we really revolutionise and turn the world upside down. For Manning, the Sacred Heart was a private devotion which powered our efforts to apply the Gospel to political, economic and social problems. Hence, the much publicised pilgrimage to the Paray-le Monial in 1873 was both a profoundly personal journey, but also an essentially public demonstration of faith. Manning was bringing the Sacred Heart into the centre of the public square, just as he was bringing Catholic teaching into political economy of his day.
Manning himself had made a study of political economy as a young man – prior to his decision to become a priest. He certainly knew the literature, as well as several leading political economists. He was a friend of John Ruskin and was evidently influenced by his essays on political economy - such as Unto this Last. Manning believed that (in a sense) the heart or the religious/moral/ ethical dimensions had been removed from the subject. Political economy had ( as Ruskin argued) wholly distorted the role of human selfishness and was narrowly focused on physical capital, money wealth, profit and loss and largely neglected the understanding and appreciation of the social economy, and sacredness of human relationships and human dignity. Thus pre-occupied, political economy was concerned with seeing to the lower level of human instincts rather than address the way in which 'the economy' involved a moral dimension.
For Manning political economy had become heartless and inhuman by the way it had removed considerations of ethics and by its over-preoccupation with self-interested human behaviour. From being about the home: the health, morals and welfare of families, ‘economics’ had become driven purely by considerations of the operations of profit and loss. For Manning consideration had to be given to the way in which capitalism gives rise to public misery and evils. For him, the alternative was not letting the free market just rip or abolishing capitalism: the alternative was a moral order which can be found in the Christian gospel. Thus the solution to the social evils of poverty, low wages, ill-health, inadequate housing and the rest, ultimately sprung from the Sacred Heart.
A civilisation of love could not be built in conditions in which a small proportion of society exercised power and domination over the vast majority. It could not be built in a society that was unjust and failed to recognise the dignity and worth of all human beings. A society informed by the gospel of Jesus Christ must necessarily involve acknowledging the rights of workers and the right to be treated with the same dignity as those with power and wealth would want to be treated. The rights of the great wealthy families and of Capital should not exceed and exclude those of the families of the poor and Labour. The weak should not be left at the mercy of the strong: government must strive to ensure, through law and legislation, that human dignity and liberty is for the many not the few. Economics was about human dignity, an a sense of the common good not just wealth measured by money.
For Manning the gospel message of loving our neighbours as ourselves had to be preached in the very heart of public life. And thus his social teaching and his promotion of devotion to the Sacred Heart were essentially two dimensions of the same mission to proclaim the gospel in an age which was becoming increasingly materialistic, utilitarian and indifferent and hostile to Christianity. In this he has much in common with Leo XIII. Despite the significance of Rerum Novarum, Leo maintained that it was his decision to dedicate the whole world to the Sacred Heart which was the most important act of his whole pontificate. Annum Sacrum (1899) makes the linkage between social teaching and the Sacred Heart quite explicit.
10. Such an act of consecration, since it can establish or draw tighter the bonds which naturally connect public affairs with God, gives to States a hope of better things. In these latter times especially, a policy has been followed which has resulted in a sort of wall being raised between the Church and civil society. In the constitution and administration of States the authority of sacred and divine law is utterly disregarded, with a view to the exclusion of religion from having any constant part in public life. This policy almost tends to the removal of the Christian faith from our midst, and, if that were possible, of the banishment of God Himself from the earth. When men's minds are raised to such a height of insolent pride, what wonder is it that the greater part of the human race should have fallen into such disquiet of mind and be buffeted by waves so rough that no one is suffered to be free from anxiety and peril? When religion is once discarded it follows of necessity that the surest foundations of the public welfare must give way, whilst God, to inflict on His enemies the punishment they so richly deserve, has left them the prey of their own evil desires, so that they give themselves up to their passions and finally wear themselves out by excess of liberty.
By the time of Annum Sacrum Manning himself had died (in 1892). But it seems to me that, as with case of the ideas which informed Rerum Novarum, the approach of Annum Sacrum was anticipated by Manning. It is evident that Manning had made the link between social justice and the Sacred Heart back in the 1860s - as his observations on St. Vincent show. He also was keen to put the Sacred Heart very much into the public square: hence his robust defence of the pilgrimage of 1873. Leo's dedication of the whole world to the Sacred Heart in relation to the place of the Gospel in public life in many ways is anticipated by Manning. He wanted to see the Sacred Heart as THE symbol of Christianity in a materialistic and secular world. This idea is set out quite explicitly in Annum Sacrum in a way that Manning would have endorsed. Leo argues :
12. When the Church, in the days immediately succeeding her institution, was oppressed beneath the yoke of the Caesars, a young Emperor saw in the heavens a cross, which became at once the happy omen and cause of the glorious victory that soon followed. And now, to-day, behold another blessed and heavenly token is offered to our sight-the most Sacred Heart of Jesus, with a cross rising from it and shining forth with dazzling splendor amidst flames of love. In that Sacred Heart all our hopes should be placed, and from it the salvation of men is to be confidently besought.
The Sacred Heart, therefore, as the symbol of Christianity in the modern age. It is in this heart that 'all our hopes should be placed, and from it the salvation of men is to be confidently besought.' As the Church faces up to a difficult and challenging period in its long history, we should keep Leo's hopes at the forefront of our thoughts and prayers.